Satellite imagery (Google Maps) with the sites of Helawa and Aliawa

The Kurdara’s meanders in an area close to Qalat Awena


View of the site of Helawa from the south

Distribution areas of archaeological finds during the different periods

Chronological phases at the site of Helawa

Late Chalcolithic furnace wasters

Veduta aerea di Aliawa da sud-ovest

Aerial view of Aliawa from south-west 

Estensione delle Aree di Raccolta ad Aliawa

Extension of the collection areas at Aliawa

The most ancient traces of occupation at the site date to the Hassuna/Halaf period (6th millennium BC, Aliawa I) and have been recorded in the western area of the mound. Late Ubaid period potsherds (late 6th-early 5th millennium BC, Aliawa II) have been collected in the southern area of the mound, while pottery sherds belonging to the LC 3-5 (4th millennium BC, Aliawa IIIB) are spread out over a wider zone. The site was then consistently occupied from the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC, Aliawa IVA-B) until Islamic times. During the entire 3rd millennium, the settlement extended beyond the mound and included the eastern slope, as indicated by the presence of typical Ninevite 5 (3100-2600 BC, Aliawa IVA) pottery sherds and specimens from later periods (2600-2000 BC, Aliawa IVB) as well. During the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550 BC), the settlement most likely reached its maximum extension (Aliawa VA-B). Pottery dating to this period, found on the eastern and southern slope of the mound in addition to other collection areas, especially in the eastern and southern sector, accounts for one fourth of the collected diagnostic sherds. Materials from the early Late Bronze Age (1550-1350 BC, Aliawa VIA-B) are less frequent but are also spread out over the mound and are comparable to the contemporary finds from Helawa. The occupation of the site during the Middle Assyrian (Late Bronze Age II, 1350-950 BC, Aliawa VIB), Assyrian and post-Assyrian (9th – late 4th centuries BC, Aliawa VII-VIII) periods is similarly attested. A consistent number of pottery sherds dating to the Hellenistic (late 4th – mid-2nd centuries BC, Aliawa IX) and Parthian (mid-2nd century BC – 3rd century AD, Aliawa X) periods were collected on the eastern and southern slopes of the mound, suggesting that the last occupation of the site developed during these centuries. Pottery sherds and objects from the Islamic period, more popular in the southern area, also demonstrate the presence of a Medieval occupation (Aliawa XI-XIIA-C). 

Fasi cronologiche del sito di Aliawa

Chronological phases at the site of Aliawa

Distribution areas of the archaeological finds per period

Aliawa’s maximum extension based on the distribution of the surface finds